By GORDON I. PETERSON, Senior Editor
The mission of the U.S. Navy is to maintain, train, and equip combat-ready
naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression, and maintaining
freedom of the seas.
The Department of the Navy has three principal components: the Navy
Department, consisting of executive offices mostly in Washington, D.C.;
the operating forces, including the Marine Corps, the reserve components,
and, in time of war, the U.S. Coast Guard (in peace, a component of the
Department of Transportation); and the shore establishment.
Today's Navy numbers approximately 370,000 active-duty men and women
(53,000 officers, 313,000 enlisted, and 4,000 midshipmen); 191,400 Ready
Reservists; and just over 195,000 civilian employees. In the active fleet
on 6 December 1999, a day typical of most in the Navy's operational schedule,
were 316 ships and 4,108 operational aircraft; 52 percent of the fleet
(165 ships) was underway from homeport on that same date, with 31 percent
(97 ships) forward-deployed and participating in seven exercises or operations.
Of the ships in the U.S. submarine force, about 25 percent (14 submarines)
were underway. Port visits were being conducted in 10 countries around
the world. The Navy's active fleet--fast approaching its smallest size
since 1931--continued to maintain a high operational tempo, one marked
by combat operations in NATO's Operation Allied Force and in the skies
over Iraq. As Secretary of the Navy Richard J. Danzig observed last year,
today's Navy-Marine Corps team is "always there when the nation
Today's forward-deployed Navy-Marine Corps team possesses unrivaled
operational and expeditionary capabilities for such missions as sea and
area control, power projection, humanitarian assistance, and force sustainment.
A Revolutionary Start
The historical antecedents for today's naval missions and the Navy's
organizational structure may be traced directly to the founding of the
U.S. Navy on 13 October 1775 during the Revolutionary War.
As the Naval Historical Center aptly states in its monograph on the
period, "Beginning with early 1775 actions in coastal waters, followed
by Commodore Esek Hopkins' 1776 amphibious assault to capture military
stores at New Providence, Bahamas, and reaching a climax in 1781 when
French fleet action off the Virginia Capes led to victory at Yorktown,
the war at sea was decisive in the nation's struggle for independence." The
Center's narrative goes on to explain how small and fragmented American
naval forces lacked the capabilities for major fleet engagements, but
their contributions--usually in a supporting role--were crucial to failure
or success ashore. Numerous British merchant ships were captured to provide
vitally needed supplies for the hard-pressed Continental Army. Armed
vessels transported Washington's troops and joined in the defense of
major port cities. American naval officers carried the fight to sea against
the Royal Navy--and beyond to England's shores.
With victory in hand and independence secured, the new republic had,
by 1785, sold off the last ships of the Continental Navy. Navies were
then, and are today, expensive to build and maintain. The past was prologue,
however. The folly of such short-sighted strategic thinking was starkly
revealed by the depredations of Mediterranean pirates and by other attacks
on U.S. overseas commerce beginning in the 1780s, followed by a confrontation
at sea with France during the 1790s, which culminated in the so-called
Quasi War with that country in 1798.
The Constitution of the United States, ratified in 1789, empowered Congress "to
provide and maintain a Navy." Congress was eventually moved to action
(in 1794) following repeated attacks abroad on the Stars and Stripes.
It authorized the procuring and manning of six frigates. Three ships--USS
United States, USS Constellation, and USS Constitution--were launched
The new United States Navy was born, and its primary mission of defending
U.S. commerce overseas would persist until well into the 19th century.
From 1794 until 1798, the Department of War administered U.S. naval
affairs. In April 1798, however, facing imminent hostilities with France,
Congress established the Department of the Navy in order to meet the
need for an executive department responsible solely for, and staffed
with persons expert in, naval affairs. Benjamin Stoddert, who served
as secretary of the Continental Board of War during the American Revolution,
became the first secretary of the Navy.
Another initiative during this formative stage in the Navy's history
was the development of a suitable shore establishment to build ships
and support the Navy's operating forces. Government shipyards were ordered
built in six ports along the eastern seaboard. Stoddert set other management
plans in motion, including needed improvements to the Navy's officer
corps. The foundation for America's eventual dominance as a global sea
power was set in place.
The Secretary of the Navy
Richard J. Danzig, the 71st secretary of the Navy (SECNAV), derives
his principal duties and authority from this early beginning two centuries
ago. SECNAV is responsible for and, under Title 10 of the United States
Code, has the authority to conduct all the affairs of the Department
of the Navy, including: recruiting, organizing, supplying, equipping,
training, mobilizing, and demobilizing. The secretary also oversees the
construction, outfitting, and repair of naval ships, equipment, and facilities,
and is responsible for the formulation and implementation of naval policies
and programs that are consistent with the national security policies
and objectives established by the president and the secretary of Defense.
During his first year in office, Danzig worked closely with afloat and
shore commanders to improve the way Sailors and Marines live, work, and
fight. His top priorities are: (1) to support personnel and quality-of-life
programs; (2) to update Navy strategy and programs to adjust to the land-attack
implications of "Forward ... From the Sea;" (3) to achieve
more synergy between the Navy and Marine Corps; and (4) to implement
aggressive information-technology programs across the entire Navy-Marine
The Department of the Navy consists of two uniformed services: the United
States Navy and the United States Marine Corps. Within the Office of
the Secretary, four assistant secretaries of the Navy have functional
responsibilities for policy formulation and oversight related to the
full spectrum of the tasks of organizing, building, outfitting, manning,
and training the Navy and Marine Corps of today and tomorrow.
Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development, and Acquisition)
H. Lee Buchanan III, for example, is the Department's acquisition executive
responsible for all research, development, and procurement of defense
systems for the Navy and Marine Corps. His staff oversees the sea services'
aviation, ship, weapons, and systems acquisition programs. The Department
of the Navy's senior uniformed staffs, serving under the chief of naval
operations and the commandant of the Marine Corps, assist by defining
force-structure requirements in their roles as warfare-resource sponsors--guiding
the direction of and priority for Navy and Marine Corps acquisition programs
as part of the service's overall strategy-formulation, resource-allocation,
and budgeting processes.
Program executive officers (PEOs), assisted by individual program managers,
exercise day-to-day responsibility on behalf of the secretary of the
Navy on research, development, and acquisition matters relating to the
Department of the Navy's ship, aircraft, weapons, and systems acquisition
programs. The PEOs have a dual reporting chain to the Navy's top civilian
and uniformed leadership. In addition to their direct-reporting relationship
to the secretary for the execution of acquisition matters, they report
to the chief of naval operations (or, for Marine Corps acquisition programs,
the commandant of the Marine Corps) through their cognizant system commands
on matters relating to the life-cycle support of deployed ships, aircraft,
weapons, and systems.
The secretary's three additional principal civilian assistants oversee
responsibilities for Navy shore installations and environmental matters,
financial management, and manpower and reserve affairs. Other staff assistants
provide expert support in legal, program-appraisal, legislative-affairs,
public-affairs, and criminal-investigative matters.
The Chief of Naval Operations
Adm. Jay L. Johnson, the present chief of naval operations (CNO), is
the senior naval officer in the Department of the Navy. He is serving
in the final year of his appointment. The CNO is responsible to the secretary
of the Navy for the command, use of resources, and operating efficiency
of the operating forces of the Navy and of the Navy shore activities
assigned by the secretary.
The post of CNO was established by Act of Congress in 1915 on the eve
of World War I, and Adm. William S. Benson was appointed as the first
CNO. During World War II, Adm. Ernest J. King held the dual titles of
CNO and commander in chief, U.S. Fleet, directing the worldwide operations
of the Navy in coordination with the nation's other armed services and
with U.S. allies.
As noted in the official history of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS),
the need for a formal joint-command structure was apparent at the end
of World War II, and the wartime JCS arrangement offered a workable model.
The first legislative step was the passage of the National Security Act
of 1947, which formally established the Joint Chiefs of Staff and laid
the foundation for the series of legislative and executive changes that
produced today's U.S. defense organization.
As a member of the Joint Chiefs, the CNO is the principal naval advisor
to the president and to the secretary of the Navy on the conduct of war,
and the principal advisor and naval executive to the secretary on the
conduct of activities of the Department of the Navy. The CNO's assistants
include the vice chief of naval operations (VCNO), the deputy chiefs
of naval operations (DCNOs), and a number of other ranking officers.
These officers and their staffs are assigned to and part of the Office
of the Chief of Naval Operations (OPNAV). The CNO's responsibilities
as a member of the JCS take precedence over all of his other assigned
With the active development and acquisition of new long-range, highly
accurate, and all-weather weapons systems and the ability to use networked
information systems to share information instantaneously over broad geographic
areas, Johnson has spearheaded a transformation in the Navy's operational
capabilities. In his view, the Navy's continued forward presence and
the ongoing development of global-economic interdependence will make
the 21st century "a naval century."
The Commandant of the Marine Corps
Just as the CNO "wears two hats"--as both a service chief
and a member of the JCS--Gen. James L. Jones Jr., the 32nd commandant
of the Marine Corps, offers advice to the president, the secretary of
Defense, and the National Security Council as a member of the Joint Chiefs.
Jones also serves as the senior officer in the Marine Corps with responsibilities
to the secretary of the Navy for the leadership, management, and administration
of the Corps, as well as the operating efficiency of Marine Corps forces
and shore activities.
The commandant's leadership position dates to November 1775, when the
Second Continental Congress, meeting in Philadelphia, passed a resolution
affirming that "two Battalions of Marines be raised" for service
as landing forces with the Continental Navy. That resolution officially
established the Continental Marines and marked the birth date of the
Corps. The nation's first Marines distinguished themselves in a number
of important operations, including the Corps' first amphibious raid--into
the Bahamas in March 1776, under the command of Capt. (later Maj.) Samuel
Nicholas, who was the first commissioned officer in the Continental
Marines, remained the senior Marine officer throughout the American Revolution
and is considered to be the first Marine commandant.
During the early months of his assignment as commandant, Jones has pledged
to pay more attention to the Corps' operating forces to ensure they remain
properly manned, ready, and successful. He also has emphasized that all
Marines and their families deserve a decent quality of life. In his view,
today's Marine Corps is the best he has seen in his 33 years of service.
Navy Operating Forces
The Navy's operating forces ("the fleet") are composed of
ships and aircraft assigned to the U.S. Atlantic and Pacific Fleets,
U.S. Naval Forces Europe, and the Military Sealift Command. Additional
operating units fall under the command of the chief of naval reserve,
the Naval Special Warfare Command, and Operational Test and Evaluation
The Navy's three four-star fleet commanders in chief (CINCs) for Navy
operating forces--the U.S. Atlantic Fleet, U.S. Naval Forces Europe,
and U.S. Pacific Fleet--have a dual chain of command. Administratively,
they report to the CNO and provide, train, and equip naval forces. Operationally,
they provide naval forces and report to the appropriate regional unified
commanders in chief for U.S. combatant commands.
As units of the Navy enter the geographical area of responsibility of
a particular Navy CINC, they are operationally assigned (or "chopped")
to the appropriate numbered fleet.
All Navy units also have an administrative chain of command, with the
various ships reporting to the appropriate type commander (air, surface,
The United States Atlantic Fleet
The U.S. Atlantic Fleet provides fully trained, combat-ready forces
to support U.S. and NATO commanders in regions of conflict throughout
the world. From the Adriatic Sea to the Arabian Gulf, Atlantic Fleet
units respond to National Command Authority tasking. Recent conflicts
involving Atlantic Fleet units include Operation Allied Force in the
Adriatic Sea and Operation Desert Fox in the Persian Gulf.
Led by Adm. Vernon E. Clark, the Atlantic Fleet consists of over 118,000
Sailors and Marines, 186 ships, and 1,300 aircraft. Additionally, there
are 18 major shore stations providing training, maintenance, and logistics
support, as well as support to Navy and Marine Corps families.
The Atlantic Fleet area of responsibility (AOR) encompasses a massive
geographic expanse that includes the area of the Atlantic Ocean from
the North Pole to the South Pole, the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico,
and the Pacific Ocean waters from Central and South America to the Galapagos
Islands. Additionally, the Norwegian, Greenland, and Barents Seas, and
the waters around Africa extending to the Cape of Good Hope, fall within
the fleet's AOR.
The primary operational unit in the Atlantic Fleet is the Second Fleet.
It is responsible for operational taskings as well as for training carrier
battle groups and amphibious ready groups for forward deployments overseas.
Atlantic Fleet forces are supported by type commanders responsible for
readiness support, logistics support, and administrative management.
The type commanders include air, surface, submarine, and Marine forces
for the Atlantic Fleet. All are headquartered in Norfolk, Va.
While providing combat-ready forces to theater commanders in the world's
hotspots is a primary responsibility, the Atlantic Fleet also joins NATO
forces in supporting the Standing Naval Forces Atlantic, a permanent
squadron of destroyers and frigates representing NATO forces in the Atlantic
region. Additionally, Atlantic Fleet units participate annually in UNITAS,
a deployment to South America. This yearly deployment not only creates
unique training opportunities with South American navies but also spreads
goodwill to the South American allies of the United States.
The Atlantic Fleet also is working to further regionalize its shore-infrastructure
management through three regional commanders--in New London, Conn., Norfolk,
Va., and Jacksonville, Fla. Additionally, a comprehensive review of afloat
forces' workload and training has been chartered by the CNO to reduce
the demands placed upon Navy people during their Interdeployment Training
On a daily basis, a high percentage of the Atlantic Fleet is either
deployed overseas, conducting underway exercises in preparation for deployment,
or involved in another phase of the IDTC. Recent joint initiatives between
the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets have led to a major change in the way
business is conducted for surface ships and aircraft squadrons in the
IDTC. Many inspections and administrative requirements have been eliminated
or reduced in order to provide flexibility to unit commanders.
Adding to the Atlantic Fleet's exciting new direction is a focus on
new concepts like Smart Ship, Smart Work, and Smart Tool. All are unique
management approaches and applications of technology that encourage the
Navy's leadership to maximize the professionalism of their team while
enhancing the professional experience of Atlantic Fleet Sailors.
U.S. Naval Forces Europe
The Commander In Chief, U.S. Naval Forces Europe (CINCUSNAVEUR), Adm.
James O. Ellis Jr., provides overall command and operational control
of all U.S. naval forces assigned to the commander in chief, U.S. European
Command (USCINCEUR). From his headquarters in London, CINCUSNAVEUR coordinates
with other U.S. and allied forces operating within the European Command's
area of responsibility to accomplish the command's assigned operational
In addition, as a naval component commander, CINCUSNAVEUR develops operational
plans and policy, and coordinates logistics, communications, legal, and
administrative support among the U.S. naval forces operating in the USCINCEUR
area of responsibility--which encompasses Europe and its contiguous waters,
the Mediterranean Sea, and the continent of Africa.
Given this broad geographical focus on multiple regions of vital interest
to the United States, NAVEUR forces often take center stage during international
crises and contingencies. Navy and Marine Corps forward-deployed ships,
aircraft, and units figure significantly in NATO maritime-interdiction
and "no-fly" enforcement operations in Bosnia and over northern
Iraq. Among the command's other missions are noncombatant-emergency evacuations
of U.S. citizens and third-country foreign nationals from strife-torn
nations in the region, counterterrorist strikes, and humanitarian assistance.
American dip-lomatic objectives are advanced steadily by port calls aimed
at furthering the U.S. engagement strategy throughout the command's AOR,
including visits and exercises with the new democracies in the Baltic
and Black Sea regions.
Of historical note: CINCUSNAVEUR headquarters is located adjacent to
the American Embassy in an unobtrusive red-brick building in London at
No. 20 Grosvenor Square. Occupied initially by Rear Adm. Robert L. Ghormley
and his U.S. Navy staff in June 1941, the building stands close to where
one of the first U.S. residents of the square, John Adams, the first
U.S. Ambassador to the Court of St. James, maintained a combination residence
and embassy (from 1785 to 1788). A plaque in the headquarters building
commemorates Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower's periodic use of the building
during his command of allied forces in Europe during World War II.
CINCUSNAVEUR's principal operating forces are composed of the ships
and aircraft of the U.S. Sixth Fleet operating in the Mediterranean Sea,
Black Sea, and adjacent areas. Divided into task forces, U.S. naval forces
forward-deployed to the Sixth Fleet usually include an aircraft carrier
battle group, an amphibious ready group, a Marine expeditionary unit,
and various support ships, land-based patrol aircraft, and nuclear-powered
U.S. Sixth Fleet participation in NATO operations and exercises is a
key element of U.S. naval operations in the region. With the breakup
of the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact, the fleet developed a systematic
approach to forward-presence operations that matched the changing security
environment of Europe. Today, this "Theater Naval Strategy of Forward
Presence, Peacetime Engagement, and Power Projection" includes exercises
and operations promoting interoperability and mutual cooperation among
Mediterranean and Black Sea littoral nations.
Unchanged in this post-Cold War period is the fleet's commitment to
NATO, combat readiness, and the capability to respond to crisis situations.
Recent Sixth Fleet operations include combat operations against the Former
Republic of Yugoslavia during NATO's Operation Allied Force; humanitarian
and security missions in conjunction with NATO operations in Kosovo in
1999; maritime peace-implementation operations in Bosnia-Herzegovina
during Operation Joint Endeavor; and the evacuation of U.S. and other
civilians caught in Liberia's civil war (Operation Assured Response)
and fleeing from strife-torn Albania (Operation Silver Wake).
In September 1995, U.S. naval forces operating in the Adriatic conducted
sustained air operations and the first-ever launch of cruise missiles
in the Mediterranean area. These operations (Operation Deliberate Force)
helped bring warring parties from Bosnia-Herzegovina to the peace table.
A planned and coordinated series of bilateral and multilateral exercises,
ranging from the Black Sea to the western Mediterranean, typically rounds
out Sixth Fleet operations.
U.S. Pacific Fleet
The Navy's third four-star CINC, Adm. Thomas B. Fargo, commands a Pacific
Fleet with a geographic area of responsibility covering more than 50
percent of the earth's surface--just over 100 million square miles. Each
day, Pacific Fleet ships are at sea in the Pacific, Indian, and Arctic
Oceans, from the West Coast of the United States to the Arabian Gulf.
The Pacific Fleet is the world's largest naval command, extending from
the West Coast of the United States to the eastern shoreline of Africa,
and from the North Pole to the South Pole--an area encompassing two oceans
and touching six continents, and home to more than half the population
of the world.
The Pacific Fleet, with its U.S. Third and U.S. Seventh Fleets, numbers
approximately 193 ships, 1,400 aircraft, and 220,900 Sailors, Marines,
and civilian Navy employees. Together they keep the sea lanes open, deter
aggression, ensure regional stability, and support humanitarian-relief
activities--providing a stabilizing influence in a vast ocean area during
periods of tension and conflict.
The Pacific Fleet's contribution to the Navy's heritage dates back to
1821 and the establishment that year of the Pacific Squadron, the first
permanent U.S. naval presence in the region. This small force initially
confined its activities to the waters off South America, but expanded
its scope to include the Western Pacific in 1835, when the East India
Squadron joined the force.
From its headquarters at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, today's U.S. Pacific
Fleet has increased operations with friendly and allied navies, thereby
ensuring freedom of the seas for all nations. The Pacific Fleet's AOR
also include the Indian Ocean, where aircraft carrier battle groups operate
in support of U.S. national interests. U.S. Pacific Fleet Navy and Marine
Corps assets are regularly assigned to the operational control of U.S.
Naval Forces Central Command and the U.S. Fifth Fleet for deployments
to the Persian Gulf and North Arabian Sea. There, these forces play a
critical role in enforcing U.S. and U.N. policy for Iraq, including maritime
interdiction and enforcement of "no-fly" operations. Pacific
Fleet units were engaged in numerous reactionary combat strikes against
Iraq during 1999.
Pacific Fleet units operating with the U.S. Seventh Fleet provide critical
capabilities in the Western Pacific, bolstering U.S. forward presence
throughout the region in peace, crisis, or war. Reciprocal port visits--with
China, for example--have proved to be an effective way to enhance military-to-military
understanding and relations. The U.S. Pacific Command's commander in
chief, Adm. Dennis Blair, describes the goal of these contacts as mutual
understanding and openness.
People are the key to the success of the Pacific Fleet. Every minute
of each day, dedicated men and women are deployed and on watch protecting
U.S. interests and promoting stability, peace, and prosperity throughout
Military Sealift Command
The U.S. Navy's Military Sealift Command serves as the ocean-transportation
provider for DOD in peacetime and in war. The command's more than 110
noncombatant ships operate in nearly every time zone of the world and
are key to the U.S. military's success in projecting a powerful global
presence "Forward ... From the Sea."
Sealift is MSC's primary mission. In wartime, more than 95 percent of
the equipment and supplies needed by U.S. forces moves by sea. In addition,
MSC provides combat-logistics support to the U.S. Navy fleet, special
ocean-missions support to U.S. government agencies, and afloat prepositioning
of U.S. military supplies and equipment in strategic areas overseas.
MSC is headquartered in Washington, D.C., and has area commands in Norfolk,
Va.; San Diego, Calif.; Naples, Italy; Yokohama, Japan; and Bahrain.
Rear Adm. Gordon S. Holder leads a work force of more than 7,200 employees
worldwide, the vast majority of whom are assigned to seagoing jobs. MSC's
work force is made up of primarily civil service personnel, but also
includes military as well as contractor personnel.
MSC ships, unlike other U.S. Navy ships, are crewed by civilians. Some
ships also have a small military contingent assigned to carry out specialized
military functions such as communications and supply operations. In wartime,
the number of contractor-employed mariners can expand to double the peacetime
number, and more than 800 MSC reservists can be mobilized.
MSC is one of three component commands reporting to the joint-service
U.S. Transportation Command, known as USTRANSCOM, which is headquartered
at Scott Air Force Base, Ill. USTRANSCOM is under the command of a four-star
general officer who is responsible for the coordination of all common-user
DOD air, land, and sea transportation worldwide.
A number of international crises throughout the last decade have underscored
the vital role of MSC in the execution of U.S. national strategy. During
the Persian Gulf War, more than 230 ships, both U.S. government-owned
and chartered commercial vessels, transported more than 12 million tons
of combat equipment and supplies, the largest part of the allied arsenal
that defeated Iraqi aggression.
In the years following the Persian Gulf War, MSC has seen a proliferation
of requests for its sea transportation services--ranging from support
of U.S. and allied peacekeeping forces in both Bosnia and Kosovo to an
array of humanitarian and disaster-relief efforts.
MSC's role in combat-logistics support to the U.S. Navy fleet also has
grown. A sealift-expansion program that started in the late 1990s will
add 19 new and converted ships to MSC's inventory by 2002. MSC's impressive
ocean-transportation resources will remain key elements in U.S. combat
readiness in the 21st century.
The Shore Establishment
The shore establishment is the third major component of the Navy's organizational
structure. The shore establishment's activities and commands report to
the CNO. They support the fleet through such activities and functions
as the repair of ships, aircraft, weapons, machinery, and electronics;
communications; the recruitment, training, and education of naval personnel;
legal services; intelligence, meteorological, and oceanographic support;
the development of naval doctrine; storage and supply support for repair
parts, fuel, and munitions; and medical and dental care for active-duty
personnel, retirees, and their families.
Recruiting and retaining the highest-quality Sailors, both enlisted
and officer, remain the highest priorities for the Bureau of Naval Personnel
(BUPERS). Vice Admiral Norbert R. Ryan Jr., leads the Bureau, serving
as both chief of naval personnel and deputy CNO (manpower and personnel).
The BUPERS team--located in Washington, D.C., and Millington, Tenn.--oversees
Navy recruiting, assignment policies and programs, and the enlisted advancement
and officer promotion processes as well as personnel pay, bonus, and
retention policies. BUPERS' principal goal is to provide well-prepared
Sailors to the fleet, in the proper numbers, on time, and in the most
cost-effective manner possible.
Similarly, the Chief of Naval Education and Training (CNET), Vice Adm.
John W. Craine Jr., is responsible to the CNO for the education and training
of Navy and Marine Corps personnel, both officer and enlisted. CNET oversees
a network of training and education programs throughout the United States
and on ships at sea. One of the largest shore commands in the Navy, CNET
is composed of approximately 29,600 military, civilian, and contract
personnel stationed at 169 activities nationwide. CNET has a daily average
of more than 43,800 military, civilian, and foreign students in training
in more than 3,400 different courses on any given day.
CNET also supervises and manages 57 Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps
(NROTC) units at colleges and universities throughout the United States
and 434 Naval Junior ROTC units at civilian high schools in 43 states,
Washington, D.C., Guam, Italy, and Japan.
As a key contributor to naval readiness, CNET's training responsibility
includes recruit training, specialized skills training, precommissioning
training for officers, warfare-specialty training, and fleet individual
and team training. CNET also trains students from foreign nations in
various enlisted skills and provides officer flight training for a number
of U.S. allies.
The 33rd surgeon general of the Navy, Medical Corps Vice Adm. Richard
A. Nelson, leads a team focused on providing high-quality health care
and customer service to approximately 570,000 active-duty Navy and Marine
Corps personnel and an additional two million retired and family members--at
a little more than half the national per-capita-average cost for medical
care. At the same time, Navy health-care professionals also provide medical
support during contingency, humanitarian, and joint operations around
The central concept of providing health-care programs that protect U.S.
fighting forces is called Force Health Protection (FHP). It is a focused
and integrated approach to protect and sustain the service's most important
resource--its service members. It is designed to improve existing health,
proactively address medical concerns, and provide care for any illness
or injury that does occur. FHP changes the focus of military medicine
from one of casualty care alone to an emphasis on fitness and monitoring
forces engaged in military operations. It thrusts preventive medicine
to the forefront of ensuring readiness for deployment. It captures the
culture shift that is taking place throughout Navy medicine--a shift
from episodic responsive care to a fit, healthy lifestyle that results
in a ready, capable individual.
Medical care at U.S. Navy facilities continues to improve. In recent
years, average objective accreditation scores for Navy hospitals were
in the 90th percentile--significantly exceeding the average scores for
civilian hospitals. Navy medicine continues to find innovative ways to
provide convenient and cost-effective medical and dental care to service
members. Pierside clinics, deployments of health-care practitioners with
the operating forces, and new programs at recruit-training activities
all save valuable time and help to keep U.S. Sailors and Marines in good
Navy medicine is applying new technology to deliver specialty consultation
in remote areas and to improve the ability to provide quality health
care for forward-deployed operating forces and at remote medical-treatment
facilities. Cutting-edge telemedicine technology developed on the nuclear-powered
aircraft carrier USS George Washington, Navy medicine's operational testbed,
is now being applied to support operational medical services on other
ships and at facilities ashore. Navy medicine continues to search for
new research breakthroughs, such as the recent scientific discoveries
in DNA vaccines for malaria, that will result in healthier lives.
The Systems Commands
The Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA), commanded by Vice Adm. George
P. Nanos Jr., is the Navy's central activity for designing, engineering,
integrating, building, and procuring U.S. naval ships, shipboard weapons,
and combat systems. Its expertise in these areas historically stems from
the Bureau of Construction, Equipment, and Repair and the Bureau of Ordnance
and Hydrography, created in 1842, and the Bureau of Ships, established
in 1940. NAVSEA's responsibilities also include the maintenance, repair,
modernization, and conversion of in-service ships and their weapons and
combat systems. Additionally, it provides technical, industrial, and
logistics support for naval ships and ensures the proper design and development
of the total ship, including contractor-furnished shipboard systems.
Other important NAVSEA functions include introduction of ships to the
fleet; the Navy's salvage-and-diving operation; explosive-ordnance safety
and disposal; coordination of naval ship conversion and repair for both
DOD and the MSC; and support of ship construction for the Maritime Administration.
NAVSEA is the largest of the five Navy systems commands. Its fiscal
year 2000 budget of about $20 billion accounts for approximately 23.5
percent of the Navy's budget of $84.9 billion. This budget places NAVSEA
among the nation's top business enterprises when comparing the value
of assets, number of employees, and budget (using Fortune Magazine criteria).
NAVSEA manages 139 acquisition programs, which are assigned to the command's
seven affiliated Program Executive Officers (PEOs) and various headquarters
elements. NAVSEA also administers more than 1,400 foreign military sales
cases worth about $16.7 billion and involving 80 countries and four NATO
The Naval Aviation Systems Command (NAVAIR) team, led by Vice Adm. John
A. Lockard, partners with industry to develop, acquire, and support naval
aeronautical and related technology systems for the Navy, Marine Corps,
and Coast Guard. NAVAIR is composed of six elements working as a fully
coordinated team: the Naval Air Systems Command, the Naval Inventory
Control Point (NAVICP), and four naval aviation PEOs.
The latter are responsible for the acquisition and full life-cycle management
of most of the aircraft and weapons used by the fleet. NAVAIR (headquarters,
product centers, and naval aviation depots) oversees all weapons programs
not managed by the PEOs and provides all of the functional support that
the PEOs and their program management teams require--including acquisition
management, contracting, research and engineering, test and evaluation,
logistics, industrial support, corporate operations, and shore-station
The NAVICP is responsible for providing spare and repair parts throughout
the life cycle of all naval weapons systems. Although it retains its
core capabilities in-house, the NAVAIR team executes most of its work
(nearly 80 percent) by contracting with private industry.
Approximately 31,600 civilian and military personnel are assigned to
NAVAIR, its four affiliated PEOs, and facilities currently located at
eight major sites throughout the United States. NAVAIR manages more than
148 acquisition programs and supports more than 4,100 active aircraft
in the Navy and Marine Corps inventory.
The Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR), commanded by Rear
Adm. John A. Gauss, stands as a leader in infusing advanced technology
into the fleet. SPAWAR also develops joint-interoperable modeling and
simulation products, and delivers operational systems that greatly enhance
training, operational assessment, and acquisition.
SPAWAR has additional responsibilities to provide management-information
systems, infrastructure, and communications applications for Navy force-wide
combat-support systems. These systems allow commanders to integrate tactical
information with key combat support logistics data in both joint- and
SPAWAR also develops systems to ensure that the U.S. national-security,
DOD, and Navy leadership has accurate, reliable, secure, and timely information.
High-bandwidth communications between afloat and ashore platforms in
near real time is essential to success in combat. The SPAWAR team also
develops and fields high-capacity interoperable systems that are affordable,
integrated, flexible, and seamless in the joint- and coalition-warfare
environments. The SPAWAR mission also includes developing and acquiring
undersea-surveillance systems, global weather- and oceanographic-forecasting
systems, and navigational systems.
The primary mission of the Naval Supply Systems Command (NAVSUP) is
to provide U.S. naval forces with quality supplies and services--at the
right place, the right time, and the right price. The command's vision
for the 21st century is that a single request by the customer will activate
a global network of sources and solutions that delivers best-value products
and services--in short, One-Touch Supply.
A principal readiness asset for naval forces, NAVSUP's professional
and diverse team delivers information, material, services, and quality-of-life
products. Its worldwide work force of more than 9,000 employees manages
logistics programs in the areas of supply operations, contracting, conventional
ordnance, resale, fuel, transportation, security assistance, food service,
and other quality-of-life programs. Rear Adm. Keith W. Lippert was named
commander, Naval Supply Systems Command, and the 41st chief of the Navy
Supply Corps in August 1999.
The Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC), commanded by Rear
Adm. Louis M. Smith, manages the planning, design, and construction of
facilities for U.S. Navy activities around the world. NAVFAC provides
technical, engineering, and program-management support for public works,
family housing, and public utilities for the Department of the Navy.
It also acquires and disposes of the Department of the Navy's real estate,
and is the program manager for Navy bachelor housing.
NAVFAC provides technical, engineering, and program-management support
to expedite the realignment and closure of naval bases. NAVFAC also manages
all of the Navy Department's shoreside environmental projects and programs.
Through its Engineering Field Divisions, Engineering Field Activities,
and the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, NAVFAC provides
the technical expertise needed to support the Navy's environmental initiatives
and to interface with numerous legislative and regulatory agencies. It
also manages a natural-resource program to enhance the environmental
qualities of its land, forests, and wildlife.
NAVFAC's tasks are accomplished by the command's global field activities
of Engineering Field Divisions, Engineering Field Activities, the Naval
Facilities Engineering Service Center, the Seabee Logistics Center, and
the Navy Crane Center.
NAVFAC's annual volume of business is approximately $8 billion. Of that
amount, more than $4.3 billion is in fixed-price, competitively bid military
construction-and-repair contracts awarded to private businesses. About
$1.9 billion is expended at public works centers, of which $1 billion
is in contracts awarded within the private sector. NAVFAC and its subordinate
commands around the world employ about 18,000 civilian and military personnel.
Naval War College
On 6 October 1884, Secretary of the Navy William E. Chandler signed
General Order 325, which began simply by stating: "A college is
hereby established for an advanced course of professional study for naval
officers, to be known as the Naval War College." The order went
on to assign Commodore Stephen B. Luce to duty as president of the College,
which is located on Coaster's Harbor Island, Newport, R.I.
Such were the humble beginnings of what is now the oldest continuing
institution of its kind in the world. Under the leadership of its current
president, Vice Adm. Arthur K. Cebrowski, the Naval War College mission
was expanded in 1998 to encompass the Naval Warfare Development Command.
CNO Adm. Jay L. Johnson described the reorganization as opening a new
era in the College's history by providing a focus with direct linkages
to the fleet for the development of Navy doctrine and innovation at the
Navy's senior service school.
Now in its second century of service, the Naval War College continues
to prepare its students not only for their next assignments, but also
for the remainder of their careers. It does this by providing them with
professional military educations based on intellectual flexibility--which
flows from a clear understanding of the fundamental principles that have
governed national-security affairs in peace and in war throughout history.
McCarty Little Hall, the War College's first major addition to the campus
since the early 1970s, will be the Navy's premier wargaming facility
for years to come. As a strategic maritime-research center, it will house
the front line of strategic research, decision support, and gaming as
the Navy prepares its leaders for the next century. The $19 million research
center is a three-story structure that encompasses approximately 103,000
square feet of classrooms and support/administrative offices.
Academically, the faculty is divided into three teaching departments--Strategy
and Policy, National Security Decision Making, and Joint Military Operations--under
a dean of academics, who also directs the interdepartmental electives
program. The school's research activities are drawn together in the Center
for Naval Warfare Studies. The student body is subdivided into four resident
colleges and one nonresident college:
College of Naval Warfare: Senior-level resident school attended by senior-grade
officers from all five U.S. military services and civilians from a number
of U.S. government agencies.
College of Naval Command and Staff: Intermediate-level resident school
attended by mid-grade officers from all five U.S. services and civilians
from a number of U.S. government agencies.
Naval Command College: Senior-level resident international school attended
by senior-grade naval officers from up to 35 nations annually.
Naval Staff College: Intermediate-level resident international school
attended by mid-grade naval officers from some 25 nations in each of
two classes per year.
College of Continuing Education: Intermediate-level nonresident school
intended to extend the Naval War College program to U.S. naval/military
officers and eligible DOD civilian employees who are unable to attend
The Naval War College currently offers courses of study leading to a
diploma from each of its five colleges. In March 1991, the College was
accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges to
award a Master of Arts degree in national security and strategic studies.
In October 1990, Congress determined that the Naval War College would
be the only senior service college in the United States authorized and
accredited to confer a graduate degree for a one-year course of instruction.
In addition, U.S. military officers graduating from the Colleges of Naval
Warfare and Naval Command and Staff are considered to have completed
the first phase of requirements for the Joint Professional Military Education
program, as set forth by the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Additional information on the Naval War College may be obtained at its
U.S. Naval Academy
The U.S. Naval Academy, founded in 1845, is the undergraduate college
of the Navy. Its beautiful and modern buildings and facilities along
the Severn River in Annapolis, Md., are designed to meet the academic,
athletic, and extracurricular needs of the future officer corps of the
Navy. Approximately 1,200 men and women enter the Naval Academy each
year. About three fourths of all entering midshipmen complete the academically
demanding curriculum, and upon graduation are commissioned as officers
in the Navy or Marine Corps. Vice Adm. John R. Ryan currently serves
as the Academy's superintendent.
Degrees and Majors: Midshipmen may major in any of 19 principal fields
of study: eight in engineering, seven in science and mathematics, and
four in the humanities, all leading to a Bachelor of Science degree.
All midshipmen also must complete a core curriculum designed to give
future naval officers a solid foundation in leadership and character
development, naval science, and the humanities.
Costs: Tuition, room, and board expenses are borne by the government.
Graduates assume an obligation of five years of active service when they
are commissioned. Midshipmen are paid a stipend of $600 per month to
cover the cost of uniforms, books, equipment, and personal needs.
Admission Criteria: Candidates must be U.S. citizens, single (without
children and not pregnant), at least 17, and cannot have reached the
age of 23 on 1 July of their year of admission to the Academy. They also
must be officially nominated, meet the Academy's academic, medical, and
physical requirements, and be found to be of good moral character. For
more detailed information: call (410) 2934361; or write to Head
of Candidate Guidance, U.S. Naval Academy, 117 Decatur Road, Annapolis,
Md. 21402. Additional information may be found on the Academy's homepage: